Unfair commercial practices include fraud, misrepresentation, and oppressive or unscrupulous acts or practices by businesses, often against consumers, and are prohibited by law in many countries. For example, in the European Union, each Member State must regulate unfair commercial practices in accordance with the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, subject to transitional periods. Unfair trading practices can occur in many areas, including: To be considered an unfair commercial practice, the act must also be committed “in a flagrant manner and in wilful disregard” of the Unfair Commercial Practices Act or the rules set out therein, and “committed with such frequency as to indicate a general commercial practice to engage in such conduct”. Fraudulent and unethical business practices are prohibited by state and federal laws. The Federal Trade Commission Act addresses “acts or practices in or affecting commerce” and distinguishes between unfair and deceptive practices. An act or practice is considered unfair if (1) it causes or is likely to cause significant harm to consumers, (2) cannot reasonably be avoided by consumers, and (3) is not outweighed by conflicting benefits to consumers or competition. In the meantime, a misleading practice exists when (1) a statement, omission or practice misleads the consumer or is likely to mislead the consumer, (2) a consumer`s interpretation of the statement, omission or practice is considered reasonable in the circumstances, and (3) the misleading statement, omission or practice is material. South Dakota also has state laws that prohibit fraudulent acts or practices in business. Under South Dakota law, a person cannot “knowingly act, use, or engage in any deceptive act or practice” or “conceal, suppress, or omit material facts” with respect to the sale or advertisement of goods. A simple definition of unfair advertising is false advertising that distorts a product, service or price.

A broader description of the term includes unfair sales strategies such as “bait and change,” a practice of promoting an item at a low price with the intention of selling other items. Unfair ads can be classified as ads with false prices, false ratings, false statements, or exaggerated statements. Misleading warranties are also considered a form of unfair advertising. Unfair trading practices can occur in any industry, but they are significant enough to prompt the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) to issue guidelines on the sale of insurance products. The NAIC defines UTPs as: The FTC penalizes misleading pricing information as an unfair business practice. Examples of misleading pricing information include fake sales, where a “limited-time offer” could actually be available forever, or completing a “bankrupt” sale with no intention of going out of business while the advertisement advertises that items are discounted even if prices have not changed. UTPs include misrepresentation of a good or service targeting vulnerable populations, false advertising, tied selling, false offers of free prices or gifts, false or misleading prices, and failure to meet manufacturing standards. Other names for UTPs are “deceptive marketing practices” or “unfair marketing practices”.

Illegal acts committed by companies that harm other companies in California fall under the jurisdiction of UCL. The law protects fair competition. For months, Ivan searched for the right window curtain to match the d├ęcor of his new high-rise apartment. Finally, as he rummaged through Amazon, he saw two gray velvet curtains with a damask pattern with taupe and gold accents and spots of ice blue glitter accents. He couldn`t have designed a more perfect color palette for window treatments if he had tried. Moreover, the velvet blackout touch was exactly what he needed. Excited, he pressed the “Buy Now” button and waited a few days for his order to arrive. When it happened, what a great disappointment! He could see, if he looked long enough and hard enough, how someone with a vivid imagination could hold the curtain for an abstract interpretation of what was being announced. However, most people would see that the product is far from what was advertised at all. The velvet was closer to linen, the damask pattern was closer to swirls, and the taupe and gold accents with ice-blue spots were closer to silver and purple, with spots of purple.

After doing a Google reverse image search of the original product photo, he saw it in a furniture magazine. When Ivan looked at the recommendations and product reviews, he saw that all the reviews had only posted reviews for the products of that particular seller, and that they had only published glowing reviews for each of the products.