Ethnic and racial identity has been examined in depth by Umaña-Taylor and Rivas-Drake, 2021 (2021, this edition), who argue that previous theorization about ethnic and racial minority children and youth took a deficit model approach and identified developmental delays and challenges that exist for ethnic and racial minority youth (see also Cabrera and Leyendecker, 2017, for a similar argument). To expand this framework, researchers have adopted a risk-based and resilience-based approach that identifies both risk factors for minority students, such as experiences of discrimination, and aspects of AKI that ensure resilience to experiences of social exclusion (Umaña-Taylor et al., 2008). This framework has found empirical support for the relationships between increased exploration and solution of ERI and the ability to manage stress associated with ethnic and racial discrimination (Rivas-Drake et al., 2014; Umaña-Taylor et al., 2008). The College is committed to promoting racial justice in the United States and abroad and will develop and support racial justice scholarships, internships, and related opportunities for students to learn alongside racial justice advocates and promote racial justice initiatives. Racial justice is the systematic and equitable treatment of people of all races that leads to equality of opportunity and outcomes for all. Racial justice initiatives address structural and systemic changes to ensure equal access to opportunity, eliminate inequalities and promote racial justice – ensuring that all people, regardless of race, can thrive and reach their full potential. Racial justice and equality are not achieved through the mere absence of racial discrimination or the perceived absence of harmful racial bias, but through conscious action to dismantle problematic and positively transformative systems – actions must be carried out with the conviction, commitment and dedication of defenders. Distinction between racial justice and racial justice: Racial justice is the process of approaching the vision of racial justice. Racial justice seeks measurable milestones and outcomes that can be achieved on the road to racial justice. Racial justice is necessary, but not sufficient for racial justice. An education system that concentrates people of color in the most overcrowded and underfunded schools with the least qualified teachers compared to the educational opportunities of white students is an example of institutional racism. Fellowships and internships with racial justice organizations and/or in support of racial justice initiatives will promote access to equal opportunity and equal treatment for all races through reviews and surveys, as well as the development of policies, practices, actions, beliefs and attitudes that promote and promote racial justice.

The fellowships will support collaboration, research, and learning with racial justice organizations that support historically oppressed racial and ethnic groups, particularly in the United States, but also in other countries where racial injustice has been and still is strong. Internalized racism is the phenomenon that occurs in a racist system when a racial group oppressed by racism supports the domination and domination of the dominant group by maintaining or participating in the set of attitudes, behaviours, social structures and ideologies that underpin the power of the dominant group. It encompasses four essential and interconnected elements: Whiteness itself refers to the specific dimensions of racism that serve to elevate whites above people of color. This definition contradicts the dominant portrayal of racism in mainstream education as isolated in discrete behaviours that some individuals may or may not exhibit, and goes beyond the designation of specific privileges (McIntosh, 1988). Whites are theorized as actively formed, affected, defined, and elevated by their racialization and the individual and collective consciousness formed within it (whiteness is thus conceptualized as a constellation of processes and practices rather than as a discrete entity (i.e., skin color alone). Whiteness is dynamic, relational and works at all times and on countless levels. These processes and practices include fundamental rights, values, beliefs, perspectives, and experiences that are supposed to be shared by all, but are in fact systematically granted only to white people. A broad definition includes not only race, ethnicity and gender – the groups that most often come to mind when the term “diversity” is used – but also age, national origin, religion, disability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, education, marital status, language and physical appearance. It also includes different ideas, perspectives and values. This special issue of Human Development is motivated by a renewed interest in racial and social injustice and recent calls to build on the momentum to correct inequalities and challenge the status quo. We identified four theoretical shifts in dominant areas of human development that created new conceptual frameworks for studying and affirming the importance of social and racial justice.

These new conceptualizations provide a robust response to psychological research that has thwarted the goal of understanding and documenting all social, cognitive, and biological abilities of all individuals. Hate crimes – Criminal acts motivated by bias that target victims because of their perceived membership in a particular social group. Incidents may include physical assault, property damage, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse, graffiti, abusive letters or emails. Hate crime laws increase penalties for conduct that is already punishable under other laws. As Kendi (2016) wrote, the forces of social equality and inequality have been at play simultaneously throughout human history. The long history of prejudice and prejudice in psychological research needs to be examined from diverse perspectives and addressed directly. Sociologists and educators examine sociocultural categories of power, status, hierarchy and privilege from a societal perspective (Bonilla-Silva, 2015; Lewis et al., 2019). Psychologists have shown how various social inequalities have negative effects on the development of children and adolescents and how individuals` attitudes, beliefs, judgments and arguments about social equality and inequality are directly related to the emergence of fair and equal treatment of others. Human development research can shed light on what we know, what helps change attitudes and behaviors, and what requires further research. This issue focuses specifically on new theories and research designed to show which factors promote equality and which aspects of human interactions and judgments create barriers to equality. Individual racism includes personal or covert acts that intentionally express prejudice, hatred or prejudice based on race. Someone who commits and strives to recognize their privilege (based on gender, class, race, gender identity, etc.) and to work in solidarity with oppressed groups in the struggle for justice, understanding that it is in their own interest to end all forms of oppression, including those from which they can concretely benefit.

Ensures that outcomes are improved in the well-being of marginalized groups, thereby improving outcomes for all. Equality is a measure of justice. Beliefs about individual inferiority or superiority, expressed through guilt or hostility towards oppressed people and idealization of privileged people. Private beliefs and prejudices about social identities influenced by society. For example, a belief that you or others are more or less hardworking, intelligent, or prone to criminal activity because of your racial identity. However, the idea that patterns of human interaction (often considered normal, natural, or universal) are in fact produced and constructed by humans through social expectations and coercion is presented as “objective.” For example, the erroneous assumption that women are better at housework is not at all related to their female anatomy, but to social expectations and pressures on women. To advance racial justice, Rogers et al. (2021, this issue) proposes a redesign of macro and micro levels of development to combat racism and how the sociopolitical context of racism itself is a source of socialization called antiracist socialization (ARS). Their argument is that developmental research too often focuses on psychological processes at the micro level of individuals and relationships without fully considering macro-level forces such as cultural and historical conditions that influence development. An example that reflects this bias is the emphasis that many parents and educators have placed on promoting a colorblind approach to parenting, teaching and learning (Pahlke et al., 2012). Colorblind socialization was often justified as an egalitarian principle that treated everyone equally.

This approach stems from the civil rights movement and the goal of Martin Luther King Jr. to judge each individual not “by the color of his skin, but by the content of his character.” Unfortunately, this phrase has been misinterpreted by many parents as implying that race should not be a topic of discussion. Silence about race, however, does not help explain why inequality exists or how to correct and challenge the unfair treatment of others. Moreover, a colorblind approach only works as a socialization strategy if there is a level playing field (Alexander, 2012). Perceptions of inherited race have been associated with perceptions of members of a racial outgroup as socially distant, increased interracial discomfort, and decreased willingness to form interracial friendships (Williams & Eberhardt, 2008; Tawa, 2016). More promisingly, interracial contact and exposure to racial ambiguity cushion the development of a secular biological theory of race (Pauker et al., 2018; Sanchez et al., 2015).